Russian Revolution: May 1-4, 1917

by Dr. Bruce Arnold

May 1, 1917 (April 18, old style)
Massive May Day celebrations occur in Russia. Foreign Minister Pavel N. Milyukov (also spelled Miliukov) sends a declaration to the Allies regarding the Russian Government’s war aims. The government’s position is that of being ready to quit the war without any ambitions regarding territorial annexations. However, knowing that the French and the British wouldn’t be happy with that position, Milyukov attaches a note of his own. Milyukov elaborates that Russia is still willing to “continue the war until complete victory” and that Russia is very much interested in expanding her territory.This note is leaked to the press and will cause the Provisional Government’s first crisis. Meanwhile, Foreign Minister Miliukov secretly promises the Allies that Russia will continue the war until complete victory and the annexation of new territory is achieved. Miliukov’s secret note prompts armed demonstrations of furious soldiers in the streets for two days. The Bolsheviks resolve that the resignation of Miliukov is not enough; a new Soviet government must be formed, and give party members new instructions.

May 3 – 4, 1917 (April 20 – 21, old style)
The April Days, also called the April Crisis. Mass demonstrations in Petrograd and Moscow against Pavel N. Milyukov’s declaration of war aims.

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